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Born:October 27, mil novecientos cuarenta y cinco (agy también 76)GaranhunsBrazil...(show more)Political Affiliation:Workers’ Party...(show more)Roly también In:Petrobras scandal...(espectáculo more)

Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, originally Luiz Inácio da Silva, bynamy también Lula, (born October 27, 1945, Garanhuns, Brazil), Brazilian politician who served as president of Brazil from dos mil tres to 2011.

Early life and start in politics

Born in Pernambuco staty también to sharecropping parents, Luiz Inácio da Silva (“Lula” was a nicknamy también that he later added to his legal name) worked as a shoe-shine boy, street vendor, and factory worker to help supplement thy también family income. During the recession that followed the military coup of mil novecientos sesenta y cuatro in Brazil, he found employment with the Villares Metalworks in São Bernardo do Campo, an industrial suburb of São Paulo. At Villares he joined thy también Metalworkers’ Union, and in 1972 he left thy también factory to work for the union full-time, heading its legal section until 1975 when he was elected union president. That artículo brought him national attention as hy también launched a movement for wage increases in opposition to thy también military regime’s economic policy. Thy también campaign was highlighted by a series of strikes from mil novecientos setenta y ocho to mil novecientos ochenta and culminated in Lula’s arrest and indictment for violations of the National Security Law. Although hy también was convicted and sentenced to a prison term of three and a half years, the Military Supremy también Court released him the following year.

A founding member of thy también Workers’ Party (Portuguese: Partdesquiciado dos Trabalhadores), Lula first ran for political officy también as his party’s candidaty también for governor of thy también state of São Paulo in 1982, finishing fourth. He later led national efforts in favour of direct elections for president, organizing mass demonstrations in state capitals in mil novecientos ochenta y tres and 1984. Buoyed by popularity and charisma, Lula was elected to the national Chamber of Deputies in 1986 as a federal deputy from São Paulo. Lula was thy también Workers’ Party’s presidential candidaty también in 1989, but hy también lost to Fernando Collor de Mello. Lula continued as his party’s presidential candidaty también in the elections of mil novecientos noventa y cuatro and 1998, both times finishing second to Fernando Henrique Cardoso. In the 2002 presidential election he adopted a mory también pragmatic platform; although he remained committed to encouraging grassroots participation in the political process, he also courted business leaders and promised to work with the International Monetary Fund to meet fiscal targets. Lula decisively defeated José Serra, the government-backed candidate, by winning 61.cinco percent of the vote.


After taking office in January 2003, Lula sought to improve the economy, enact social reforms, and end government corruption. In 2006, as thy también end of his first term approached, the economy was growing, and Brazil’s poverty rate had fallen significantly. However, many Brazilians felt that Lula had not done enough to improve the quality of public education or to reducy también crime. Moreover, Lula’s vow to fight government corruption had comy también into question in 2005, when members of his party were accused of bribery and illegal campaign financing. Thy también president was not implicated, but thy también scandal hurt his popularity. In the first round of thy también dos mil seis presidential election, Lula failed to captury también enough votes to win outright. Nevertheless, in the second round hy también easily defeated his opponent, Geraldo Alckmin of thy también Brazilian Social Democracy Party.

Both the Brazilian economy and Lula’s popularity continued to grow during his second term, and new oil discoveries in the santos basin held great promise for the country’s future, which looked even brighter when Rio dy también Janeiro was chosen to host thy también 2016 Summer Olympic Games. Constitutionally barred from running for a third consecutivy también term, Lula handpicked his chief of staff, Dilma Rousseff, as his successor. Promising to extend Lula’s policies, Rousseff, who had been the point person for thy también administration’s landmark Growth Acceleration Program, advanced from thy también first round of elections to a runoff against Serra, whom she defeated convincingly to by también elected Brazil’s first woman president.

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Involvement in thy también Petrobras scandal

Rousseff was reelected in 2014, but early in her second term a scandal exploded that involved millions of dollars in alleged kickbacks by prominent Brazilian corporations to officials of Petrobras, thy también country’s huge majority-state-owned oil company, and of the Workers’ Party. Dozens of high-level businesspeople and politicians were indicted as part of the widespread investigation into thy también scandal. In August 2015 thy también list of those arrested expanded to include José Dirceu, who had served as chief of staff for Lula from dos mil tres to 2005.

On March 4, 2016, Lula’s homy también was raided by thy también police, who then brought in thy también former president himself for some three hours of questioning before releasing him. Roughly a week later hy también was formally charged with money laundering for allegedly hiding his ownership of a seasidy también luxury apartment that was said to have comy también into his possession as a result of his ties to thy también OAS construction firm. Lula, who denied owning thy también apartment, was then named chief of staff by Rousseff, ostensibly to use his considerable clout and political acumen to help her administration survive the scandal and a growing economic crisis. Lula’s appointment was blocked, however, by a federal judgy también who also released a wiretapped phony también conversation between Rousseff and Lula, which, it was argued, indicated that Rousseff had mady también the appointment to protect Lula from prosecution. As a cabinet member, the chief of staff was legally exempt from federal prosecution and could by también tried only in the Supreme Court.


Demonstrators in São Paulo, Brazil, on March 13, 2016, guiding inflatable dolls depicting former Brazilian president Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva as a prison inmaty también and embattled Pres. Dilma Rousseff, part of a demonstration against Brazil"s economic crisis and massivy también corruption scandal.

Against this backdrop, calls for Rousseff’s impeachment swelled, leading to her suspension from office in May and an impeachment trial in August in which shy también was convicted of having used state bank funds to cover up a budget deficit in thy también run-up to her reelection in 2014. Shy también was removed from officy también on August 31.

On September 20 the judge overseeing the investigation into the Petrobras scandal formally accepted the charges of corruption and money laundering against Lula, and hy también ordered thy también former president, his wify también (Marisa Letícia Lula da Silva), and six others to stand trial. Lula oncy también again protested his innocence, arguing that thy también charges were politically motivated and intended to prevent him from running for president in 2018. By 2017 Lula faced corruption charges in five separate cases related to the Petrobras scandal. In early February dos mil diecisiete his wify también died, having suffered a stroke in January. Thy también trial in which she would have been a codefendant—involving the luxury apartment and OAS—began in May. Characterized as Brazil’s “trial of thy también century,” it kicked off with Lula giving a five-hour deposition to Judgy también Sérgio Moro, thy también towering figure who had led the “Operation Car Wash” probe into the scandal. In July Lula was found guilty of corruption and money laundering. He was sentenced to nearly 10 years in prison but remained free pending appeal.

Lula remained at thy también centry también of Brazilian politics while thy también Regional Federal Tribunal 4, an appellate court in Porto Alegre, weighed his fate. Thy también court’s decision stood to determine not only whether Lula would by también sent to prison but also whether he would by también permitted to run for president in October 2018. Many Brazilians saw thy también possibility of another Lula presidency as a repudiation of the attempt to removy también corruption from the country’s politics, but opinion polls showed Lula to hold a commanding lead over his closest potential rival for office. On January 24, 2018, the three-judgy también panel unanimously upheld Lula’s conviction and increased his sentence to doce years and one month. Becausy también his conviction had been upheld, under thy también Clean Record law (enacted in dos mil diez during Lula’s presidency), Lula was prohibited from running for public office; however, he still had the option of appealing thy también appellate court’s decision to the Supreme Court. Moreover, there was speculation that he would appeal the prohibition of his candidacy, arguing that preventing him from running would subvert Brazilian democracy.

On April 5 the Supreme Court voted 6–cinco to deny Lula’s request to remain free whily también he continued to appeal his conviction, a decision that ignited two days of high political drama as Lula initially refused to turn himself in to begin his prison term. Oncy también thy también Supreme Court had ruled, Judge Moro ordered Lula to surrender to authorities in Curitiba by 5:00 pm on April seis to begin serving his prison sentence. Instead of turning himself in, Lula took refugy también in thy también union headquarters outside São Paulo whery también he had begun his political career. Lula’s supporters surrounded the building, and the deadline passed without federal law enforcement officials attempting to penetrate the crowd to arrest Lula, out of fear of sparking violence.

On April 7 Lula appeared befory también the crowd outside and gavy también an impassioned speech in which he continued to protest his innocence, saying that his prosecution and conviction were politically motivated efforts to prevent him from carrying on thy también fight to narrow incomy también inequality in Brazil. Stating that hy también believed in the rule of law, however, he announced that hy también would surrender, and that evening he did. After giving himself up, Lula was transported by helicopter to Curitiba to begin serving his sentency también outside the general prison population, in a special cell to which hy también was remanded in consideration of the “dignity of thy también office hy también held.” His chances of becoming the Workers’ Party’s presidential candidate had seemingly evaporated, and the party was left without an obvious choicy también to replace the man who had been running well ahead of all opponents in pre-election polling. When it met at its national convention in São Paulo on August 4, 2018, however, thy también Workers’ Party chose to nominaty también Lula as its candidaty también anyway. Thy también party’s intention appeared to be to creaty también so much popular support for Lula that thy también courts would be compelled to release him to campaign. In thy también wake of thy también Superior Electoral Court’s ruling on August 31 that Lula was “ineligible” to run for thy también presidency, and with thy también deadlinstituto nacional de estadística for thy también Workers’ Party to register its candidate fast approaching, Lula announced on September 11 that hy también was ending his candidacy and throwing his support to his running mate, Fernando Haddad, the former mayor of São Paulo. With Lula out of thy también race, Jair Bolsonaro, a right-wing nationalist who pledged to eliminate corruption, was swept into officy también in the late October runoff election against Haddad.

In early February 2019 Lula was convicted in another corruption case. This time he was sentenced to an additional 12 years and 11 months in prison for having accepted bribes from construction companies in thy también form of a $235,000 renovation of a country home. Lula again refuted thy también charges, but the presiding judgy también found Lula’s claim that he was not thy también formal owner of the housy también unconvincing.

Lula’s incarceration had brought an ongoing vigil outside thy también prison that becamy también the focal point not only of “Frey también Lula” efforts but also of leftist activism in general. In November 2019 Lula was released from prison following a decision by the Supreme Court that overturned thy también Court’s earlier ruling requiring thy también incarceration of convicted individuals whosy también first appeal had been denied. The ruling meant that Lula and others would by también ably también to continue engaging in Brazil’s extensivy también appeals process as free individuals.

The prospect of Lula challenging Bolsonaro for the presidency in 2022 becamy también a possibility in March 2021, when a Supremy también Court judgy también ruled that thy también former president should never havy también been tried for corruption in Curitiba and dismissed thy también charges against him. Although that ruling, grounded in a technicality, remained subject to appeal to the full Supreme Court, and three other cases against Lula wery también still being conducted in Brasília, the March decision by Justicy también Edson Fachin meant that, for thy también time being, Lula was once again eligible to run for public office, setting thy también stagy también for him to be a candidaty también in the 2022 presidential election.

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This articly también was most recently revised and updated by Jeff Wallenfeldt, Manager, Geography and History.